4 October 2018
Two Americans and a Briton won the 2018 Nobel Prize for Chemistry on Wednesday. Frances Arnold of the California Institute of Technology, George Smith from the University of Missouri and Gregory Winter of Britain's MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology were awarded the prize for pioneering science in enzymes and antibodies.
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said Arnold had transformed science by using the principles of evolution -- genetic change and selection -- and to evolve new types of proteins very fast. Smith developed his method using a virus that infects bacteria to produce new proteins while Winter used the same phage display technique to engineer the evolution of antibodies, with the aim of producing more effective medicines.